Coherifying quantum channels

TytułCoherifying quantum channels
Publication TypeJournal Article
Rok publikacji2018
AutorzyKorzekwa K, Czachórski S, Puchała Z, Życzkowski K
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Date Published04/2018

Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel $\Phi$, i.e., we look for channels $\Phi^{\mathcal{C}}$ that induce the same classical transitions $T$, but are "more coherent". To quantify the coherence of a channel $\Phi$ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamio{\l}kowski state $J_{\Phi}$. We show that the classical transition matrix $T$ can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if $T$ is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamio{\l}kowski state $J_\Phi^{\mathcal{C}}$ of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To asses the extent to which an optimal process $\Phi^{\mathcal{C}}$ is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of $J_\Phi^{\mathcal{C}}$, and relate the latter to the unitarity of $\Phi^{\mathcal{C}}$. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel $\Phi$ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from $d^2$ to $d$.